Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz

LeibnitzJune 21, 1646, Leipzig
November 14, 1716, Hannover
  • Logician
  • Mathematician
  • Philosopher



Philosophy that is based on the idea that each person is a monad, a completely separate being, whose existence is in harmony with God and separate from outer experiences.

Summary from

"The universe is composed of countless conscious centers of spiritual force or energy known as monads. Each monad represents an individual microcosm, mirroring the universe in varying degrees of perfection, and developing independently of all other monads.

All the monads are spiritual entities, but those with the most confused perceptions form inanimate objects and those with the clearest perceptions, including self-consciousness and reason, constitute the souls and minds of humanity.

The universe that these monads constitute is the harmonious result of a divine plan, "the best of all possible worlds." God is conceived of as the Monad of Monads, who creates all other monads and predestines their development in accordance with a preestablished harmony."